• Wat is MCS ?
    MCS staat voor Multiple Chemical Sensitivity ofwel Meervoudige Chemische Overgevoeligheid.
    Mensen met MCS worden letterlijk ziek van alledaagse chemische stoffen en geuren.

Martin L. Pall

This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels
of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each of the observations above. The Report is assessed here in several ways including through Karl Popper’s assessment of strength of evidence. Popper argues that the strongest type of evidence is evidence that falsifies a theory; second strongest is a test of “risky prediction”; the weakest confirms a prediction that the theory could be correct but in no way rules out alternative theories. All of the evidence supporting the Report’s conclusion that only thermal effects need be considered are of the weakest type, confirming prediction but not ruling out alternatives. In contrast, there are thousands of studies apparently falsifying their position. The Report argues that there are no biophysically viable mechanisms for non-thermal effects (shown to be false, see above). It claims that there are many “inconsistencies” in the literature causing them to throw out large numbers of studies; however, the one area where it apparently documents this claim, that of genotoxicity, shows no inconsistencies; rather it shows that various cell types, fields and end points produce different responses, as should be expected. The Report claims
that cataract formation is produced by thermal effects but ignores studies falsifying this claim and also studies showing [Ca2+]i and VGCC roles. It is time for a paradigm shift away from only thermal effects toward VGCC activation and consequent downstream effects.

Klik hier om het volledige artikel te openen (PDF, Engels, opent in een pop-up venster).

Stephen J. Genuis, Christopher T. Lipp

As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS.

Klik hier om het volledige artikel te openen (PDF, Engels, opent in een pop-up venster).

Martin L. Pall

Cases of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are reported to be initiated by seven classes of chemicals. Each of the seven acts along a specific pathway, indirectly producing increases in NMDA activity in the mammalian body. Members of each of these seven classes have their toxicant responses lowered by NMDA antagonists, showing that the NMDA response is important for the toxic actions of these chemicals. The role of these chemicals acting as toxicants, in initiating cases of MCS has been confirmed by genetic evidence showing that six genes that influence the metabolism of these chemicals, all influence susceptibility to MCS. It is likely that chemicals act along these same pathways, leading to increased NMDA activity when they trigger sensitivity responses in MCS patients. The chronic nature of MCS and also related multisystem illnesses is thought to be produced by a biochemical vicious cycle mechanism, the NO/ONOO- cycle, which is initiated by various stressors that increase nitric oxide and peroxynitrite levels (with some but not others acting via NMDA stimulation). The NO/ONOO- cycle is based on well documented individual mechanisms. The interaction of this cycle with
previously documented MCS mechanisms, notably neural sensitization and neurogenic inflammation, explains many of the previously unexplained properties of MCS. This overall mechanism is also supported by physiological correlates found in MCS and related multisystem illnesses, objectively measurable responses to low level chemical exposure in MCS patients, many studies of apparent animal models of MCS and also evidence from therapeutic trials of MCS-related illnesses. Some have argued that MCS is a psychogenic illness, but this view is completely inconsistent with this diverse data on MCS and related illnesses and the literature claiming psychogenesis of MCS is deeply flawed. In addition, two rare predictions that can be used to test psychogenesis both lead to rejection of the psychogenic hypothesis. While the NO/ONOO- cycle mechanism for MCS is supported by many different observations, there are also multiple areas where further study is needed.

Klik hier om het volledige artikel te openen (PDF, Engels, opent in een pop-up venster). 

E. Millqvist, U. Bengtsson, O. Löwhagen

Background: In earlier studies, we have shown that patients with a history of sensory hyperreactivity develop asthma-like symptoms when exposed to strong scents, even if they cannot smell any scent.

Methods: For study of possible pathophysiologic mechanisms behind sensory hyperreactivity, the patients' airways and eyes were separately exposed to a common inducing factor, perfume. Eleven patients with a history of hyperreactivity to chemical trigger factors, such as perfume, were provoked single-blindly in a placebo-controlled, randomized study. During airway exposure, the eyes were covered and, during the eye exposure, the patients inhaled fresh air. A special face mask or a nose clip was used to avoid any smell.

Results: During the 30-min exposure to perfume, there was a gradual increase in three main symptoms; i.e., eye irritation, cough, and dyspnea, after both the airway and eye exposures. The increases were significant compared with placebo.

Conclusions: Asthma-like and other symptoms, such as irritation of the eyes, may be induced by exposure of both the airways and the eyes in patients with sensory hyperreactivity. This points to the importance of studying the sensory nervous system, not only in the airways, but also in other organs.

Klik hier om het volledige artikel te kopen (Wiley Online Library).

Hajime Kimata

Plasma levels of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and nerve growth factor, but not histamine, were elevated in patients with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity (sMCS). Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) increased plasma levels of all parameters in these patients, while it had no effect in normal subjects or patients with atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS). Exposure to VOC also enhanced skin wheal responses induced by histamine in patients with sMCS, while it failed to do so in normal or AEDS subjects. These results indicate that exposure to VOC may enhance neurogenic inflammation with concomitant enhancement of histamine-induced responses.

Klik hier om het volledige artikel te kopen (ScienceDirect).